Cystoscopy is the technique of placing a rigid endoscope into the bladder. It can be used to assess urinary problems in the female cat and dog. The main advantage is that it allows direct visualisation of the structures under magnification to allow diagnosis either visually of structural problems or by allowing direct biopsies to be taken of diseased sites. This has the benefit of allowing a diagnosis to be achieved without the need of a traumatic surgical procedure. Consequently the patient has significantly less trauma, pain and the recovery period is much quicker. This procedure can usually be performed on a day case basis.